theos: God, a godOriginal Word: θεός, οῦ, ὁPart of Speech:
Noun, Feminine; Noun, MasculineTransliteration:
God, a godDefinition:
(a) God, (b) a god, generally.
the supreme Divinity, God, godly.
Of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with ho) the supreme Divinity; figuratively, a magistrate; by Hebraism, very -- X exceeding, God, god(-ly, -ward).
see GREEK ho
Thayer'sSTRONGS NT 2316: ΘεόςΘεός
, vocative θῇ
, once in the N. T., Matthew 27:46
; besides in Deuteronomy 3:24
; Judges 16:28
; Judges 21:3
; (2 Samuel 7:25
; Isaiah 38:20
); Sir. 23:4; Wis. 9:1; 3Macc. 6:3; 4 Macc. 6:27; Act. Thom.
44f, 57; Eus. h. e.
2, 23, 16; (5, 20, 7; vit. Const. 2, 55, 1. 59); cf. Winer
s Grammar, § 8, 2 c.; (Buttmann
, 12 (11)); ((on the eight or more proposed derivations see Vanicek
, p. 386, who follows Curtius
, (after Döderlein), p. 513ff in connecting it with a root meaning to supplicate, implore; hence, the implored
; per contra cf. Max Müller, Chips etc. 4:227f; Liddell and Scott, under the word, at the end)); (from Homer
down); the Sept.
; a god, a goddess
1. a general appellation of deities or divinities: Acts 28:6; 1 Corinthians 8:4; 2 Thessalonians 2:4; once ἡ Θεός, Acts 19:37 G L T Tr WH; Θεοῦ φωνή καί οὐκ ἀνθρώπου, Acts 12:22; ἄνθρωπος ὤν ποιεῖς σεαυτόν Θεόν, John 10:33; plural, of the gods of the Gentiles: Acts 14:11; Acts 19:26; λεγόμενοι θεοί, 1 Corinthians 8:5a; οἱ φύσει μή ὄντες θεοί, Galatians 4:8; τοῦ Θεοῦ Ρ᾽εφαν (which see), Acts 7:43; of angels: εἰσί θεοί πολλοί, 1 Corinthians 8:5b (on which cf. Philo de somn. i. § 39 ὁ μέν ἀλήθεια Θεός εἰς ἐστιν, οἱ δ' ἐν καταχρησει λεγόμενοι πλείους). (On the use of the singular Θεός (and Latindeus) as a generic term by (later) heathen writers, see Norton, Genuineness of the Gospels, 2nd edition iii. addit. note D; cf. Dr. Ezra Abbot in Chris. Exam. for Nov. 1848, p. 389ff; Huidekoper, Judaism at Rome, chapter i. § ii.; see Bib. Sacr. for July 1856, p. 666f, and for addit. examples Nagelsbach, Homer. Theol., p. 129; also his Nachhomerische Theol., p. 139f; Stephanus' Thesaurus, under the word; and references (by Prof. Abbot) in the Journal of the Society for Biblical Literature and Exegesis, i., p. 120 note.)
2. Whether Christ is called God must be determined from John 1:1; John 20:28; 1 John 5:20; Romans 9:5; Titus 2:13; Hebrews 1:8f, etc.; the matter is still in dispute among theologians cf. Grimm, Institutio theologiae dogmaticae, edition 2, p. 228ff (and the discussion (on Romans 9:5) by Professors Dwight and Abbot in the Journal of the Society for Biblical Literature, etc. as above, especially, pp. 42ff, 113ff).
3. spoken of the only and true God: with the article, Matthew 3:9; Mark 13:19; Luke 2:13; Acts 2:11, and very often; with prepositions: ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ, John 8:42, 47 and often in John's writings; ὑπό τοῦ Θεοῦ Luke 1:26 (T Tr WH ἀπό); Acts 26:6; παρά τοῦ Θεοῦ, John 8:40; John 9:16 (L T Tr WH here omit the article); παρά τῷ Θεοῦ, Romans 2:13 (Tr text omits, and L WH Tr marginal reading brackets the article); ; ἐν τῷ Θεοῦ, Colossians 3:3; ἐπί τῷ Θεῷ, Luke 1:47; εἰς τόν Θεόν, Acts 24:15 (Tdf. πρός); ἐπί τόν Θεόν, Acts 15:19; Acts 26:18, 20; πρός τόν Θεόν, John 1:2; Acts 24:(15 Tdf.),16, and many other examples without the article: Matthew 6:24; Luke 3:2; Luke 20:38; Romans 8:8, 33; 2 Corinthians 1:21; 2 Corinthians 5:19; 2 Corinthians 6:7; 1 Thessalonians 2:5, etc.; with prepositions: ἀπό Θεοῦ, John 3:2; John 16:30; Romans 13:1 (L T Tr WH ὑπό) παρά Θεοῦ, John 1:6; ἐκ Θεοῦ, Acts 5:39; 2 Corinthians 5:1; Philippians 3:9; παρά Θεῷ, 2 Thessalonians 1:6; 1 Peter 2:4; κατά Θεόν, Romans 8:27; 2 Corinthians 7:9f; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 19, under the word ὁ Θεός τίνος (genitive of person), the (guardian) God of anyone, blessing and protecting him: Matthew 22:32; Mark 12:26f (Mark 12:29 WH marginal reading (see below)); Luke 20:37; John 20:17; Acts 3:13; Acts 13:17; 2 Corinthians 6:16; Hebrews 11:16; Revelation 21:3 (without ὁ; but G T Tr WH text omit the phrase); ὁ Θεός μου, equivalent to οὗ εἰμί, ᾧ καί λατρεύω (Acts 27:23): Romans 1:8; 1 Corinthians 1:4 (Tr marginal reading brackets the genitive); 2 Corinthians 12:21; Philippians 1:3; Philippians 4:19; Philemon 1:4; κύριος ὁ Θεός σου, ἡμῶν, ὑμῶν, αὐτῶν (in imit. of Hebrew אֱלֹהֶיך יְהוָה, אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה, אֱלֹהֵיכֶם יְהוָה, אֶלֹהֵיהֶם יְהוָה): Matthew 4:7; Matthew 22:37; Mark 12:29 (see above); Luke 4:8, 12; Luke 10:27; Acts 2:39; cf. Thilo, Cod. apocr. Nov. Test., p. 169; (and Lightfoot as quoted under the word κύριος, c. α. at the beginning); ὁ Θεός καί πατήρ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ: Romans 15:6; 2 Corinthians 1:3; 2 Corinthians 11:31 (L T Tr WH omit ἡμῶν and Χριστοῦ); Ephesians 1:3; Colossians 1:3 (L WH omit καί); 1 Peter 1:3; in which combination of words the genitive depends on ὁ Θεός as well as on πατήρ, cf. Fritzsche on Romans, iii., p. 232f; (Oltramare on Romans, the passage cited; Lightfoot on Galatians 1:4; but some would restrict it to the latter; cf. e. g. Meyer on Romans, the passage cited; also on Ephesians, the passage cited; Ellicott on Galatians, the passage cited; also, Ephesians, the passage cited); ὁ Θεός τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, Ephesians 1:17; ὁ Θεός καί πατήρ ἡμῶν, Galatians 1:4; Philippians 4:20; 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 1 Thessalonians 3:11, 13; Θεός ὁ πατήρ, 1 Corinthians 8:6; ὁ Θεός καί πατήρ, 1 Corinthians 15:24; Ephesians 5:20; James 1:27; James 3:9 (Rec.; others κύριος καί πατήρ); ἀπό Θεοῦ πατρός ἡμῶν, Romans 1:7; 1 Corinthians 1:3; 2 Corinthians 1:2; Ephesians 1:2; Philippians 1:2; Colossians 1:2; 2 Thessalonians 1:2; 1 Timothy 1:2 (Rec., others omit ἡμῶν); Philemon 1:3; (ὁ Θεός πατήρ, Colossians 3:17 L T Tr WH (cf. Lightfoot at the passage); elsewhere without the article as) Θεοῦ πατρός (in which phrase the two words have blended as it were into one, equivalent to a proper name, German Gottvater (A. V. God the Father)): Philippians 2:11; 1 Peter 1:2; ἀπό Θεοῦ πατρός, Galatians 1:3; Ephesians 6:23; 2 Timothy 1:2; Titus 1:4; παρά Θεοῦ πατρός, 2 Peter 1:17; 2 John 3; cf. Wieseler, commentary üb.
d. Brief a. d. Galat., p. 10ff ὁ Θεός with the genitive of the thing of which God is the author (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 30, 1): τῆς ὑπομονῆς καί τῆς παρακλήσεως, Romans 15:5; τῆς ἐπλιδος, Romans 15:13; τῆς εἰρήνης, Romans 15:33; 1 Thessalonians 5:23; τῆς παρακλήσεως, 2 Corinthians 1:3. τά τοῦ Θεοῦ, the things of God, i. e. α. his counsels, 1 Corinthians 2:1 L β. his interests, Matthew 16:23; Mark 8:33. γ. things due to God, Matthew 22:21; Mark 12:17; Luke 20:25. τά πρός τόν Θεόν, things respecting, pertaining to, God — contextually equivalent to the sacrificial business of the priest, Romans 15:17; Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 5:1; cf. Xenophon, rep. Lac. 13, 11; Fritzsche on Romans, iii., p. 262f Nom. ὁ Θεός for the vocative: Mark 15:34; Luke 18:11, 13; John 20:28; Acts 4:24 (R G; Hebrews 1:8 ?); ; cf. Winers Grammar, § 29, 2; (Buttmann, 140 (123)). τῷ Θεῷ, God being judge (cf. Winers Grammar, § 31, 4 a.; 248 (232f); Buttmann, § 133, 14): after δυνατός, 2 Corinthians 10:4; after ἀστεῖος, Acts 7:20 (after ἄμεμπτος, Wis. 10:5; after μέγας, Jonah 3:3; see ἀστεῖος, 2). For the expressions ἄνθρωπος Θεοῦ, δύναμις Θεοῦ, υἱός Θεοῦ, etc., Θεός τῆς ἐλπίδος etc., ὁ ζῶν Θεός etc., see under ἄνθρωπος 6, δύναμις a., υἱός τοῦ Θεοῦ, ἐλπίς 2, ζάω I. 1, etc.
4. Θεός is used of whatever can in any respect be likened to God, or resembles him in any way: Hebraistically, equivalent to God's representative or vicegerent, of magistrates and judges, John 10:34f after Psalm 81:6<10> () (of the wise man, Philo de mut. nom. § 22; quod omn. prob. book § 7; (ὁ σοφός λέγεται Θεός τοῦ ἄφρονος ... Θεός πρός φαντασίαν καί δοκησιν, quod det. pot. insid. § 44); πατήρ καί μήτηρ ἐμφανεις εἰσί θεοί, μιμούμενοι τόν ἀγεννητον ἐν τῷ ζοωπλάστειν, de decal. § 23; ὠνομάσθη (i. e. Moses) ὅλου τοῦ ἔθνους Θεός καί βασιλεύς, de vita Moys. i. § 28; (de migr. Abr. § 15; de alleg. leg. i. § 13)); of the devil, ὁ Θεός τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου (see αἰών, 3), 2 Corinthians 4:4; the person or thing to which one is wholly devoted, for which alone he lives, e. g. ἡ κοιλία, Philippians 3:19.